Southeastern Ornamental Horticulture Production and Integrated Pest Management
News alerts and tips from Southeastern universities.
On February 22, 2016 The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) added Barrow, Cherokee, Douglas, Fannin, Habersham, Murray, and White Counties in Georgia to the list of regulated areas for the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB). The Federal Quarantine specifically regulates the interstate movement of EAB-host wood and wood products from the quarantined areas in Georgia including firewood of all hardwood species, nursery stock, green lumber, waste, compost, and chips of ash species.
There are now 19 Georgia counties under the EAB Regulatory Quarantine. See The Georgia Forestry Commissionhttp://www.gfc.state.ga.us/forest-management/forest-health/eab/index.cfm or Georgia Department of Agriculture website http://www.agr.georgia.gov/emerald-ash-borer-eab.aspx for a map and list of the regulated Georgia counties and for information about EAB identification, damage symptoms, photographs, life cycle and quarantine regulations.
The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a non-native and highly invasive insect that has killed tens of millions of ash trees in 25 states and in Canada since it was first discovered near Detroit, Michigan in 2002. It is thought that EAB was accidently introduced into the U.S. from Southeast Asia in infested shipping containers and materials. EAB kills both vigorously growing and weakened ash trees.
The GA-TACF annual meeting is an exciting opporunity to learn more about American chestnut restoration research in Georgia and national restoration efforts! Attendees will hear research presentations from Georgia scientists as well as from nationally recognized plant geneticist William Powell, who leads ground-breaking transgenic work with blight-resistant chestnuts at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Also, attendees will tour laboratory and horticultural facilities involved in chestnut research at the University of Georgia. It is free to attend the meeting, and box lunches will be available to attendeeds for $7.
Please let us know if you can attend by RSVP-ing on our Eventbrite page by March 26th! Also, if you plan to purchase a box lunch, please select your sandwich preference when you register!
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Warnell School of Forestry
9:00 – 9:30 Arrive, sign in, coffee, pay for lunch
9:30 – 10:00 Convene & membership meeting, Mark Stoakes
10:00 – 10:10 Welcome address, Dean Green
10:10 – 10:30 Update on breeding program, Martin Cipollini
10:30 – 10:35 American chestnut remaining in the wild, Nathan Klaus
10:35 – 11:15 Keynote address & presentation, Bill Powell
11:15 – 12:30 Embryogenesis & clonal propagation presentation and lab tour, Scott Merkle
12:30 – 1:30 Lunch; depart for Watkinsville Horticultural Research Farm
Watkinsville Hort Research Farm
2:00 – ~3:30 Tour Hort Farm backcross orchard, Ryan McNeil
Meeting Location Map
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Have a question? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Saturday, April 9, 2016 from 9:00 AM to 3:30 PM (EDT) – Add to Calendar
Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia – 180 E. Green St.. Building 1, Room 304. Athens, GA 30602 – View Map
After seeing insect and disease issues very early this season, it would be timely to review scouting plug trays. A good program can reduce your costs, losses and headaches significantly. Co-authors Dr. Jean Woodward and Dr. Paul Thomas explain how to approach this methodology.
See the full article HERE.
Congratulations to the following researchers on their successful grant proposals in 2016. Research projects focus on agricultural engineering, environment and plant microclimate monitoring, entomology, plant pathology, soil science, horticulture, plant breeding and evaluation, new product evaluation, propagation, and water managemen. There are 5 funded projects for the year 2012 directed by researchers from the University of Georgia, and University of Florida.
The results of the research conducted at CANR benefit the entire industry. All results are published on the CANR website and presented at the Georgia Green Industry Trade Show in January.
The Center for Applied Nursery Research is open to all and presents a wonderful opportunity to observe new plant material and visually experience the projects in progress in addition to reading the final reports following project completion.
CANR is funded by special events and donations from industry and individuals. With continued support from the industry, the Center can continue to fund and provide a site for horticulture research in Georgia and the Southeast. For more information on how you can support CANR click_here
The 2016 Projects are:
Evaluating five improved genotypes of cotoneasters for container production in southeastern U.S.
Over the past 15-20 years, production of cotoneasters has declined due to a variety of reasons, not the least of which has been a lack of breeding for improved varieties. As Dirr points out, there are a number of problems with the genus including fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora. I have developed a number of selection that have proven resistant to fire blight in our greenhouse inoculation studies. I have propagated these selections and grown them in limited numbers. Industry input in Oregon on these selections has been extremely positive. They root at high percentage (all >90%) and progress through production very fast; one selection in particular rooted and was transplanted into a #1 container in 1 month. I believe these selections have potential to revive a “workhorse” genus and provide a crop for growers nationwide including areas where fire blight has limited their potential. The objective of the proposed research is to grow these five selections alongside two industry cultivars and evaluate their production scheduling and resistance to disease (fire blight), insect (lace bug), and environmental stress (heat).
Longevity and efficacy of pre-emergent herbicides
Dr. Mark Czarnota
University of Georgia
There are many herbicide available to the nursery industry, but little scientific research has been performed to determine the longevity of the herbicide in soil-less media. It is often thought that most preemergence herbicide provide approximately 30 to 40 days of control where weed seed growth is inhibited, and the additional month or two of weed control is just time that no weed infestation is present. To determine the length of time that a herbicide provides weed free growth, replanting of weeds seed needs to occur weekly until no weed control is observed. The objective of this study is to test the longevity of select herbicides on the control of select weeds, and determine the actual length of weed control that an individual herbicide can be expected to provide.
Automating leaching fraction measurements to improve water conservation, fertilizer efficiency, and plant growth during container nursery production
Water is an essential input for container nursery crop production. The threat of regulation, poor water quality, periodic drought, and competition for water make managing water resources a critical aspect of container nursery management.
Measuring leachate and calculating leaching fraction (leachate volume/total irrigation volume) is an effective way to determine irrigation volume and can be used to improve irrigation scheduling. Determining the leaching fraction of one plant during one irrigation cycle is typically done by manually capturing and measuring the irrigation water volume and the leachate coming out of the bottom of the container. Other methods include weighing the leachate and irrigation water, and aggregating leachate on a collection pad from multiple plants before measuring. However, manual methods of leachate measurement are time and labor intensive and therefore difficult to perform at a nursery on a scale suitable to capture day-to-day and plant-to-plant variation. Furthermore, these methods are only functional at a small scale; they would be difficult to adapt to a large-scale outdoor nursery environment under overhead irrigation.
Our objective is to design and develop automated leachate gauges that will function in an outdoor nursery setting with overhead irrigation and deliver accurate, real time data that can be used to schedule irrigation. The proposed system will automatically adjust irrigation run time to maintain a leaching fraction of 10-20%.
Chemical fate of phosphorus in containerized nursery crop production
James Owen, Jake Shreckhise, and Alex Niemiera
A complete fractionation of phosphorus (P) (i.e. total phosphorus, orthophosphate, dissolved phosphorus and insoluble phosphorus) in pore-water (i.e., solution residing in container substrate pores) of amended and non-amended soilless substrate has not yet been performed; furthermore, the determined fraction of total leachate phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate (plant available P) has been inconsistent between studies (Million et al. 2007; Ristvey et al., 2004). Fractioning pore-water phosphorus will provide insight on short-term quantity of plant available phosphorus in pore-water, as well as the immediate bioavailability of P leached from soilless substrate. We hypothesize that not all pore-water phosphorus is immediately plant available. Thus, our results would allow us to make fertilization recommendations based on plant available phosphorus rather than total phosphorus in pore-water. Additionally, determining the proportion of dissolved and insoluble phosphorus in leachate would aid in our understanding of the container nursery’s environmental impact due to phosphorus runoff. Therefore, our objectives are to determine (1) the concentration and form of phosphorus in pore-water of lime- and micronutrient-amended and non-amended pine bark when fertilized with controlled-release fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium AND (2) the effect of pine bark source (i.e., supplier) on pore-water phosphorus form and concentration when fertilized with controlled-release fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Preliminary experimentation at Virgina Tech in our laboratory has shown a dramatic effect of amendments on leached P fractions warranting a need for continued research described within this proposal.
Container Production Techniques of Syzygium buxifolium, An Alternative to Buxus
University of Georgia,
Recently, boxwood blight, a devastating fungus disease (Cylindrocladium buxixola), has been reported in Georgia and 15 additional states and its alternatives are desperately needed. Syzygium buxifolium from central China shares similar ornamental features as boxwood, but is resistant to boxwood blight because it belongs to Myrtaceae. The objectives are 1) to evaluate Syzygium performance in container, 2) to investigate container production strategy for Syzygium, and 3) to address the production schedule of Syzygium as a potential new plant.
Download entire pdfs for the current edition of commercial handbooks. Includes volumes 1 and 2, as well as a pdf that combines both volumes into one file. Also included is information on using the pdfs on mobile devices.
Includes all sections in VOLUME 1 of the 2016 Commercial Edition of the Georgia Pesticide Management Handbook in one pdf (475 pages) with bookmarks. Has recommendations for pest control on Field Corn; Cotton; Fruit & Nuts; Grain Millet; Grain Sorghum; Insecticidal Transgenic Crops (PIPs); Peanut; Soybean; Sugar Cane; Sunflower; Tobacco; and Vegetables. Cultural, biological, physical, and other types of control are recommended where appropriate. Standard front of book” material is also included.
GA Pest Management Handbook 2016 – Volume 2
Includes all sections in VOLUME 2 of the 2016 Commercial Edition of the Georgia Pesticide Management Handbook in one pdf (497 pages) with bookmarks. Has recommendations for pest control on Animals; Alfalfa; Aquatic Environments; Canola; Clover; Humans (Mosquito Control); Lespedeza; Non-Cropland; Ornamentals’ Perennial Grass; Small Grains; Stored Products; Temporary Grazing; Trees; Turfgrass; Vertebrates. Cultural, biological, physical, and other types of control are recommended where appropriate. Standard “front of book” material is also included.
GA Pest Management Handbook 2016 – COMBINED
Includes all recommendations found in Volumes 1 and 2 of the 2016 Commercial Edition of the Georgia Pesticide Management Handbook in one pdf (919 pages) with bookmarks. Standard “front of book” material is also included. This pdf is only available for agents.
Jan. 26: Updated bookmarks
Using the Pest Management PDFs on a Mobile Device
This is a 6 min (175 mb) video produced by Frank Watson, Wilkes County CEC, on how to use the bookmarks feature of the Adobe Acrobat Reader app in order to easily access pest management information.
Once you arrive at the page, you will have the option to log into Dropbox if you desire, but that is not necessary. Just “X” out that box and then click to stream the video. You can also use the download link at the top of the page to download file to your computer.
Note: PDFs are also searchable. Using the video as a reference, instead of tapping on the book icon on the bottom left to access the bookmarks, the magnifying glass icon will bring up a text box that will let you search by keyword. Then it will find the word and highlight its location in the document. You can use the arrows to scroll to other instances of the where the word is used in the document. This could be useful if you are looking for a specific chemical or disease; just be sure spelling is correct. You may also only want to search for part of the word, such as “blue” in order to capture both blueberries and blueberry.
For more information on using the Adobe Acrobat mobile app, see https://acrobat.adobe.com/us/en/products/mobile-app.html
Re-posted from EcoIPM.org.
Update: Today while walking around the neighborhood I saw lots of migrating woolly aphids, probably woolly elm
aphid, floating through the air. They look like little white troll dolls with white tufts of ‘hair’. Species in the genus Eriosoma migrate between two hosts. Woolly apple aphids have a complicated life history. They can overwinter on the as nymphs on roots of rosaceous plants and on elm as eggs. In spring eggs hatch and eventually adults migrate from elm to rosaceous hosts. Then it seems some of these migrate down to overwinter on roots but others must migrate back to elm. It is not well understood. Woolly elm aphids (Eriosoma americanum) feed on elm leaves in spring then adults migrate to Amelanchier spp. in early summer. These may be what we are seeing now. In any case keep your eyes out for white floating tufts and try to grab one for a close look.
Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) infestations on pyracantha bushes around campus. These produce cottony fluff along the branches. When you brush away the fluff (really it is wax the aphids produce) you will see hundreds of pink or grey aphids crawling around. Woolly apple aphids have been out for a month or so now but are becoming very noticeable now. Infestations for multiple years produce large leafless patches on bushes. The aphids cause galls to form on branches and branches become black from sooty mold.
Pyracantha is also host to hawthorn lace bugs which are active now. The beautiful critters cause stippling on leaves. Between the two pests, pyracantha often looks pretty bad a lot of the time. One benefit may be that I noticed hundreds of lady beetle pupae on the the infested bushes I was photographing. Soap or oil should provide some control more information from WSU and eXtension.
This video demonstrates how nursery crop producers can apply a systems-based pest management approach to propagation, eliminating or minimizing the spread of pathogens from propagation houses and beds into the main production areas. Five practical tactics are featured, providing an overview of ways producers can stop or minimize the spread and, consequently, reduce costs associated with damage and control measures. Funding for this video was provided by the Southern Risk Management Education Center, the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, and the UT Department of Plant Sciences. Narrated by Ms. Haylee Jones, produced by Ms. Halee Jones and Dr. Diana Cochran with assistance from Dr. Amy Fulcher.
To access Alan Windham’s carrot assay described in this video, use this link and select Systems-based Pest Management.
This video demonstrates how nursery crop producers can apply a systems-based pest management approach to irrigation, eliminating or minimizing the spread of pathogens from recycled irrigation water and standing water in main production areas. It also covers the importance of testing water quality and refining irrigation volume to optimize plant health. Funding for this video was provided by the Southern Risk Management Education Center, the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, and the UT Department of Plant Sciences. Narrated by Ms. Haylee Jones, produced by Ms. Halee Jones and Dr. Diana Cochran with assistance from Dr. Amy Fulcher.
This video covers basic concepts in shipping and receiving from a systems-based pest management standpoint. The video focuses on diligent inspection of plant material, careful record keeping to facilitate tracing plants forward and backward, and frequent sanitation of carts, docks and semi trailers. UT undergraduate student, Halee Jones, and UT postdoctoral scientist, Dr. Diana Cochran, did an outstanding job on this and the other 4 videos in our series! This is the final video in this series.